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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Majo Ki. Lovecraft's style in translation A case study of selected stories and their Polish versions Styl H. Lovecraft and the style of his prose Lovecraft and his influences The analysis of vocabulary in the selected fragments One of such responses is anxiety, uncertainty, eventually leading to fear. Between every two languages there is content that may be found challenging by translators. This is due to syntactic differences, lexical schemas and the general structure of a language.

I bought my first Violet Lake bikini in and in , it was still by far my favourite bikini, so I was delighted to be able to acquire the brand that I so love and believe in. Allison Underhill, provided by Published 5: The year in pictures: Part I 1 A Syrian girl held an oxygen mask over the face of an infant at a makeshift hospital following a reported gas attack on the rebel-held besieged town of Douma in the eastern Ghouta region on the outskirts of the capital Damascus on Jan. The incident came during the third and final sentencing hearing for Nassar on sexual abuse charges.

Part I. Sandringham House, which has been the monarch's country retreat since Ian Burt Sandringham House, where the Queen spends Christmas, has been the private home of four generations of British monarchs since It was bought by the then Prince of Wales, who later became Edward VII, as a private country retreat and the main house was rebuilt in to ensure it was big enough for his growing family.

It hosted many glittering occasions, from visits by foreign heads of state to balls for the local landed gentry, farmers and servants, and annual shoots. The idea was to make the most of the winter daylight hours for shooting and so the clocks all over the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk were advanced by half an hour. Not surprisingly, the standard word order is used instead of inversion. The revised translation is an attempt to amend these deviations from the style of the author: Appendix A — Robert P.

Lipski tends not to be accurate in translating the style of H. He quite frequently omits or adds words in an unnecessary manner, deleting particularly those words which Lovecraft used to emphasise his characters' knowledge of antiquity.

This and further syntax modifications alter the sentences significantly, imbalance their dynamics and what is most important, change the meaning of the fragments. What is more, some fragments translated by Lipski seem to be rather illogical and contradictory. Lastly, some of his lexical choices, such as artificially inserted diminutives or unfortunate archaic forms, are by no means frightening to the reader and in fact spoil the carefully constructed mood.

Both of these are rather brief prose poems, based on Lovecraft's dreams which sets both text in an ethereal, surreal atmosphere of the unknown and the sublime.

It may seem that the texts by Kopacz are insufficient to be analysed because of their modest length. They are however, as prose poems, full of stylistic means and thus represent the style of the author vividly. What is more Mateusz Kopacz translated S. Joshi's H. A life, which is a rather exhaustive biography of the author. He also reviewed and corrected some of the stories translated by others. As he is one of the chief editors of www. It is interpreted as the illustration of Lovecraft's fear of the often prophesied fall of civilisation Joshi, The initial analysis of the story allowed for a generally positive evaluation.

Sentence structure, logic and the use of inversion are preserved. It may be seen as an attempt to make the style of the author less confusing. It seems that only the last paragraph of the story may require slight revision.

It no longer describes what is happening to the crowds in the city and is more of a dreamscape, or a nightmarescape to be more precise. Screamingly sentient, dumbly delirious, only the gods that were can tell.

A sickened, sensitive shadow writhing in hands that are not hands, and whirled blindly past ghastly midnights of rotting creation, corpses of dead worlds with sores that were cities, charnel winds that brush the pallid stars and make them flicker low.

Beyond the worlds vague ghosts of monstrous things; half-seen columns of unsanctified temples that rest on nameless rocks beneath space and reach up to dizzy vacua above the spheres of light and darkness. And through this revolting graveyard of the universe the muffled, maddening beating of drums, and thin, monotonous whine of blasphemous flutes from inconceivable, unlighted chambers beyond Time; the detestable pounding and piping whereunto dance slowly, awkwardly, and absurdly the gigantic, tenebrous ultimate gods —the blind, voiceless, mindless gargoyles whose soul is Nyarlathotep.

Lovecraft, N The above fragment is translated as: This paragraph may be the most intricate construction in the entire story. The first person narrator travels through a garden at night and sees his surroundings transform completely as another Lovecraftian dreamscape is painted before his eyes.

Kopacz is rather careful in his translation; he tends, however, to add words or perform minor lexical changes to sentences, for example in the following case: It was in the spectral summer when the moon shone down on the old garden where I wandered; the spectral summer of narcotic flowers and humid seas of foliage that bring wild and many-coloured dreams. Lovecraft, WMB The above fragment is translated as: It is said that the water is still, before being moved to reveal the shore.

One of the final sentences of the text, a description of a horror, has undergone a major transformation: And when I saw that this reef was but the black basalt crown of a shocking eikon whose monstrous forehead now shone in the dim moonlight and whose vile hooves must paw the hellish ooze miles below, I shrieked and shrieked lest the hidden face rise above the waters, and lest the hidden eyes look at me after the slinking away of that leering and treacherous yellow moon.

The proposed revision of this fragment is as follows: See Appendix B — Mateusz Kopacz 3. He translated two texts modest in length and apart from a few revisions in terms of syntax and sentence logic, he may be deemed as a rather accurate translator. At times he attempts to lift the style and adds words to clarify certain sentences. Alliterative qualities of Lovecraft's prose poems are partially preserved in Kopacz's translations, yet in some fragments, the style is translated in a slightly exaggerated manner.

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Despite a small number of texts their length is rather substantial, contrary to the texts translated by Kopacz and they provide more material for analysis. The story, written in describes, in third person narration the life of a young antiquarian, Charles Dexter Ward, who gradually becomes mad due to the nature of his studies.

The main text is preceded by a quote from a fictional almanach concerning necromancy, written by Borellus: The essential Saltes of Animals may be so prepared and preserved, that an ingenious Man may have the whole Ark of Noah in his own Studie, and raise the fine Shape of an Animal out of its Ashes at his Pleasure; and by the lyke Method from the essential Saltes of humane Dust, a Philosopher may, without any criminal Necromancy, call up the Shape of any dead Ancestour from the Dust whereinto his Bodie has been incinerated.

It may be suspected that it was omitted due to editorial limitations. In many cases, new sentences and paragraphs are started, while simply a semicolon is used by Lovecraft to divide phrases in his text. There are also discrepancies in the numeration and division of the chapters. The changes in typography, however, affect the overall rhythm of the story and illustrate the translator's tendency to manipulate it in excess both in terms of layout and lexical changes, which involve frequent adjectival additions.

Lovecraft, CDW This is translated as: Lovecraft but rather the rendition of the text done by the translator. A revised translation is proposed: Willett, indeed, presents a minor mystery all his own in his connexion with the case. Possibly due to a misunderstanding of the original sentence, the translator changes the context entirely and reports that Willett denies having had anything to do with the escape of the patient.

Such a change influences the perception of the character. The sole statement is quite blunt, instead of introducing one of the elements of the mystery which are to be explained later in the course of the story.

The revised translation could be as follows: First of all, there is not a single mention of any 'dark cover'. The above additions are an example of a major inaccuracy in translating Lovecraft's style.

Lexical additions persist in fragments such as one below. About the second week Charles began to be absent from the house for long periods, and one day when good old black Hannah[.. The short novel contains a substantial number of italicised quotes in Middle English, mostly letters exchanged between the necromancers, often describing their ways and rituals. The information they include is important in Willet's investigation about the origins of Ward's insanity. Job XIV.

Lovecraft, CDW The above fragment is translated as: Thus, a revised translation would sound as follows: Some of his proposed additions are rather exaggerated. Some paragraphs are significantly altered both in terms of syntax and meaning, due to recurring misunderstanding of the text by the translator. The story was written in and marks the mature stage of Lovecraft's fiction. The first person narrator visits an old man, Ammi Pierce, local to the parts around the fictional city of Arkham, Massachusetts.

The initial analysis of the story show only two parts which might require slight revision. Grzybowska is very careful in her translation of Lovecraft's style, as seen in the fragment below: It was a scene from a vision of Fuseli, and over all the rest reigned that riot of luminous amorphousness, that alien and undimensioned rainbow of cryptic poison from the well —seething, feeling, lapping, reaching, scintillating, straining, and malignly bubbling in its cosmic and unrecognisable chromaticism.

Lovecraft, CS Translated as: Contrary to other translators, Grzybowska does not divide the long, complex utterance into parts and retains the original length. What is more, all of the used lexical items are successfully and accurately translated without any repetitions.

Apart from these tentative suggestions, this Lovecraftian paragraph seems to be translated as accurately as possible. There are, however, several fragments which may require revision: The five cats had left some time before, but their going was scarcely noticed since there now seemed to be no mice, and only Mrs. Gardner had made pets of the graceful felines. Gardner was making cat-like noises when closed in the attic after her husband deemed her as insane.

There is no mention of any sounds being made in the original sentence. This is probably due to a misunderstanding or rather an over-interpretation of the fragment by Grzybowska. A following could be revision is proposed: Zenas needed no calming.

He had come of late to do nothing but stare into space and obey what his father told him; and Ammi thought that his fate was very merciful. Lovecraft, CS The above fragment is translated as: In the revised version, the sentence could end with. Grzybowska chose to normalise the dialect of farmers around Arkham. The last time Nahum Gardner ever speaks to Ammi, he says: Lovecraft, CS His words are translated as: Nahum is terrified as he dies and standard speech may sound rather too calm for a man who witnessed horrors.

Applying any dialectal form for his utterance could be proposed as a revision, for example: Apart from the mentioned fragments requiring slight revision, Grzybowska's translations seem to be the most accurate out of the stories analysed so far. The syntactic structures as well as lexical choices are carefully transformed into Polish. A fragment from The Colour out of Space is subject to close analysis in the later part of this chapter.

See Appendix D — Ryszarda Grzybowska 3. The first one contains the results of the initial research, based on various visions and accounts and an attempt to identify an idol depicting a creature unknown to man.

The second part concerns a police investigation on the swamps of Louisiana, which exposes one of the meeting places used by the cultists. In the final part, stranded sailors stumble upon an unknown island only to realise in horror that it is a place not from our world, inhabited by the creature seen on idols and in visions.

In the initial paragraph, conscious of the maddening knowledge that came into his possession, he states: We live on a placid island of ignorance in the midst of black seas of infinity, and it was not meant that we should voyage far. Lovecraft, CC The above excerpt is translated as: In another fragment an artist recounts his dream vision to the researcher: At times the Latin words used by Lovecraft become quite a challege, as in the description of the idol portraying Cthulhu.

A curious lexical choice is noted in the following fragment: These however, are rather recent in language, so perhaps the revision would not be necessary at all. Yet another ambiguity is presented in the fragment containing a direct description of Cthulhu: The Thing of the idols, the green, sticky spawn of the stars, had awaked to claim his own. The stars were right again, and what an age-old cult had failed to do by design, a band of innocent sailors had done by accident.

After vigintillions of years great Cthulhu was loose again, and ravening for delight. Po niezliczonych latach wielki Cthulhu byl znowu wolny i spragniony uciechy. A revised version is proposed: Apart from the ambiguities, similarly as in The Colour out of Space Grzybowska slightly misunderstands some of Lovecraft's lexical choices. The first quote comes from the introduction of a renowned scholar.. As the cult is further researched and explained, the next fragment tells of the practices in the far North.

It was a faith of which other Esquimaux knew little, and which they mentioned only with shudders, saying that it had come down from horribly ancient aeons before ever the world was made. Besides nameless rites and human sacrifices there were certain queer hereditary rituals addressed to a supreme elder devil or tornasuk; Lovecraft, CC The above excerpt is translated as: Finally, in the quote containing a description of the sunken city of R'lyeh where Cthulhu awakes, Grzybowska demonstrates a general accuracy in translating Lovecraft's style, despite minor choices which might require revision.

The unknown, unimaginable city, where even the sun is not normal is revealed as truly out of this world. The adjectives used by the author are rendered in accordance to the atmosphere of the story. They are not, however, free of ambiguous lexical choices and unnecessary alterations. There is a slight inconsistency in following Lovecraft's manner of using Greco-Latin words. In some cases, Grzybowska inverts the meanings used by Lovecraft, which imbalances the logic of the sentence, bordering on incoherence.

Despite the above, Grzybowska uses a wide variety of lexemes when translating complex descriptions and presents herself as a careful, if imperfect, translator. He is, however, the only contemporary translator whose works were corrected in newer editions of the author's stories.

The artist is not a welcome member of the local art club because his works portray monsters gnawing on human flesh in disturbing detail.

Unlike most first person narrators in Lovecraft's stories, Thurber is very expressive, direct and uses coloquial language.

As he recounts what Pickman told him before, a narrative within a narrative is used by the author. In the fragment below there are a number of inconsistencies between the original version and the translation. Reid or Joe Minot or Bosworth did. Boston never had a greater painter than Richard Upton Pickman. That, you remember, was when Minot cut him. There is also the question of the final sentence of the fragment. There was none of the exotic technique you see in Sidney Sime, none of the trans-Saturnian landscapes and lunar fungi that Clark Ashton Smith uses to freeze the blood.

Omission is another phenomenon present in the translation of this fragment. Here—have another drink—I need one anyhow! The final quote mentioned in the initial analysis of this story concerns sentence logic as well as a slight mood-alteration. That nauseous wizard had waked the fires of hell in pigment, and his brush had been a nightmare-spawning wand. Give me that decanter, Eliot!

The initial analysis of Pickman's Model presents a number of various inaccuracies in translation. This novella presents the journey,that Randolph Carter, who is an experienced dreamer, undertakes, in order to find the legendary city of Kadath, where the gods dwell.

The novella is very rich in its imagery, with complex, at times overwhelming sentences and events of epic proportions. Mostly contradictory or illogical, the examples of such sentences include the following fragments: When for the third time he awaked with those flights still undescended and those hushed sunset streets still untraversed, he prayed long and earnestly to the hidden gods of dream that brood capricious above the clouds on unknown Kadath, in the cold waste where no man treads.

Lovecraft, DQ The above fragment is translated as: The use of the adverbial participle could be a way to translate the non-standard word order in the sentence. Revised,the fragment could read as follows: Carter, however, had no fear; for he was an old dreamer and had learnt their fluttering language and made many a treaty with them; Lovecraft,DQ The above fragment is translated as: In terms of words describing sound and speech, there is another fragment, in the climax of the story, where Carter, having reached the city of Kadath, faces Nyarlathothep, one of the gods, in his human form.

The deity addresses the dreamer. Watchers have spoken of this thing, and the Other Gods have grunted as they rolled and tumbled mindlessly to the sound of thin flutes in the black ultimate void where broods the daemon-sultan whose name no lips dare speak aloud. A revised version could be thus proposed: A revision of the above sentence could be: Reflecting upon these things, he was staggering to his feet in the midst of his nightmare company when there rang without warning through that pale-litten and limitless chamber the hideous blast of a daemon trumpet.

A following revision could be proposed: Another tautology appears on the following page of the translation. The story concludes in Carter's return to his home in New England, after Nyarlathothep makes him realise, that it is not the dreamlands, but the reality, where he grew up, that he cherishes.

Scent of the sea and fragrance of the fields; spell of the dark woods and joy of the orchards and gardens at dawn.

These, Randolph Carter, are your city; for they are yourself. New-England bore you, and into your soul she poured a liquid loveliness which cannot die. A following revision of the final sentence could be proposed, including an attempt to preserve the alliterative qualities of the original phrase: This fragment is a truly Lovecraftian paragraph, containing florid descriptions, intentional repetition of the beginning of the phrase, inversion as well as alliterations.

Stars swelled to dawns, and dawns burst into fountains of gold, carmine, and purple, and still the dreamer fell. Cries rent the aether as ribbons of light beat back the fiends from outside. And hoary Nodens raised a howl of triumph when Nyarlathotep, close on his quarry, stopped baffled by a glare that seared his formless hunting-horrors to grey dust. Randolph Carter had indeed descended at last the wide marmoreal flights to his marvellous city, for he was come again to the fair New England world that had wrought him.

Thus a revision could be proposed: This is motivated by the fact that the world presented in The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath is a fantasy setting, full of both fable-like and terrifying creatures. As there seems to be an alarming number of inconsistencies and inaccuracies on the side of the translator.

Due to the length of the story, the enumeration of all possible fragments where a revision could be proposed would require a significant extension of this thesis. It adopts the first person perspective of a man from the Delapore family.

He moves to the rebuilt house of his ancestors in England and explores the lore behind the de la Poers, as his family was originally called. He is an ardent lover of cats and soon after moving, both he and his companions discover the mysteries of the ancestral seat. One of these occurs in the first paragraphs of the story. Exham Priory had remained untenanted, though later allotted to the estates of the Norrys family and much studied because of its peculiarly composite architecture; an architecture involving Gothic towers resting on a Saxon or Romanesque substructure, whose foundation in turn was of a still earlier order or blend of orders—Roman, and even Druidic or native Cymric, if legends speak truly.

Lovecraft, RW The above fragment is translated as: It may have been a conscious choice to update the description to modern historical knowledge. It is used at the cost of accuracy. This complex sentence need not be divided and equivalents for all the words are possible to provide, since it is possible to render its entire content without sacrificing fluency, as in the revised translation below: There is a more substantial fragment containing further alterations, surprisingly, very heavy in terms of the meaning and logic of the paragraphs.

The bare statistics of my ancestry I had always known, together with the fact that my first American forbear had come to the colonies under a strange cloud. Of details, however, I had been kept wholly ignorant through the policy of reticence always maintained by the Delapores. Unlike our planter neighbours, we seldom boasted of crusading ancestors or other mediaeval and Renaissance heroes; nor was any kind of tradition handed down except what may have been recorded in the sealed envelope left before the Civil War by every squire to his eldest son for posthumous opening.

The glories we cherished were those achieved since the migration; the glories of a proud and honourable, if somewhat reserved and unsocial Virginia line.

During the war our fortunes were extinguished and our whole existence changed by the burning of Carfax, our home on the banks of the James.

My grandfather, advanced in years, had perished in that incendiary outrage, and with him the envelope that bound us all to the past.

Contrary to Lovecraft's original text, in the translation, the narrator states that he had been interested in the family lore for a long time and the fact that his ancestor left England for reasons unknown is one of the basic truths about de la Poers. The next fragment contains lexical choices which are rather unsuitable for a horror story, especially when they are an inaccurate translation in regard to the original sentences.

I did not draw the curtains, but gazed out at the narrow north window which I faced. There was a suspicion of aurora in the sky, and the delicate traceries of the window were pleasantly silhouetted. Lovecraft, RW Translated as: A revision of the second sentence could read as follows: In the climax of the story, the narrator discovers his terrifying ancestry which leads him to a temporary state of madness as well as a suggested act of cannibalism.

In his insane raving, he gradually adopts the language of all those before him who took part in the rituals. He lived, but my boy died! Shall a Norrys hold the lands of a de la Poer?

Magna Mater!

Dia ad aghaidh's ad aodaun Dhonas 's dholas ort, agus leat-sa! However, further in the paragraph, the initial accuracy seems to be lost. A following revision could be thus proposed: Lovecraftian prose often contains shouts in languages unknown to man, particularly in moments of ritual ecstasy.

The unknown, menacing cries add to the intensity of the climax as the suggestion of archaic language is understandable in the context of the story as well as the complex architecture of the cursed house, discussed earlier. A fragment of The Rats in the Walls is chosen for further analysis in the later part of this chapter. What is more, some fragments of his translation present flawed logic and contradiction.

Lovecraft, two groups could be distinguished after performing the initial qualitative analysis of their work. The first group are the translators who are careful in translating Lovecraft's style as accurately as possible, retaining many of its features and the richness. Manipulating the original text in such way often results in illogical or contradictory sentences which are rather difficult to comprehend and may result in the readers' rejection of the stories as poorly written and uninteresting.

In both groups there were examples of the translators misunderstanding or perhaps misreading the original sentences which resulted in lexical choices that may need to be revised. Another inaccuracy present in translations of both groups concerns sentence and paragraph division. Some long sentences are divided into several shorter ones, while others are amalgamated into very long and complex sentences. This may be, however, connected to editorial limitations.

Initially the number of paragraphs, sentences and words in each fragment, both original and translated, was counted, including the discrepancies in word count, given in brackets, between the English and the Polish versions.

This provides the basis for further analysis and shows which translator may be deemed as accurate in preserving the paragraph layout used by Lovecraft. Table 2. Number of sentences and paragraphs in the original texts and in translations The original text The translation Translated by Sentences Paragraphs No.

It is of course necessary to consider the use of prepositions instead of noun cases, and pronouns instead of verb forms inflected for person, which increases the word count of the original as compared to the Polish versions. All figures are rounded where necessary, discrepancies are given in brackets. There are 4 additional sentences, which means he altered the original sentences by Lovecraft. Furthermore, he divided the original paragraphs, thus extending them from 5 to 9.

On the other hand, the word count in Lipski's translation slightly exceeds the original word count of the story; what is more, his translation seems to preserve the original sentence length rather closely, being only 5 words less on average than the original sentence.

It seems that the most accurate translation according to Tables 2 and 3 is the one by Ryszarda Grzybowska. There is only 1 additional sentence in her translation, the number of paragraphs remained the same as in the original text, there are fewer words in her translation than in the original, only 69, however, which is a still significantly smaller discrepancy when compared to other translators. Grzybowska is also close to the original average sentence length, with her sentences being only 4 words shorter, which is the lowest of all translators.

The analysis of vocabulary in the selected fragments The following tables show a comparison between the numbers of style-related words, which include vocabulary of Greco-Latin origin, adjectives, nouns and adverbs which describe situations, states or attributes evoking fear in the original text and the translation.

Thus, more common words and those which do not adhere to any of the senses, are neutral or exclusively serve to construct the cohesion of the sentences are not taken into account.

Table 4. This discrepancy increases when the repetitions of used adjectives and nouns are counted. Data from Table 4 may suggest that Lipski uses a wide vocabulary to translate Lovecraft's stories, yet he does not refrain from frequent repetitions. Adverbs seem to be used accurately in his translation. Since the qualitative analysis yielded examples of additions and omissions in Lipski's translations it was thus suspected that it may be further exemplified by the quantitative analysis.

The increase in the number of adjectives in the translations can be at times ascribed to the necessity to translate compound nouns as separate words, adjectives and nouns. An example sentence from the fragment shows that Lipski tends to extend the original sentences quite significantly. I dropped prone again and clutched vainly at the floor for fear of being swept bodily through the open gate into the phosphorescent abyss.

Table 5. Similarly to Lipski, there are more unique words in the translation than in the original, mostly due to compounding of nouns by Lovecraft. The number of repetitions, however, is smaller than the repetitions used by Lovecraft, which is due to the careful choice of lexemes as the translator wants to avoid repetition and translate the author's style accurately.

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What is more, Kopacz at times uses adjectives and other constructions, in turn replacing some of the original adverbs. Table 6. The word count of the translation is words less than the original version.

Lovecraft, CDW The above sentence is translated as: Table 7. The number of adverbs is preserved and there are minute differences between the number of adjectives and nouns, the latter preserving even the number of repetitions in relation to the original fragment.

The number of used adjectives and nouns seems to be clearly smaller than in Lovecraft's vocabulary. Analogically, there are 10 less nouns than in the original. The average sentence length is smaller, largely due to simplification, which can be exemplified by the fragment below. After a few moments he regretted his thoughtless haste, and wished he had tried to follow backward the frescoes he had passed on the way in.

True, they were so confused and duplicated that they could not have done him much good, but he wished none the less he had made the attempt. Lovecraft, DQ The above sentences are translated as: This may be due to omissions which influence the complexity and mood of the sentences, as illustrated by an example. The skulls denoted nothing short of utter idiocy, cretinism, or primitive semi-apedom.

Above the hellishly littered steps arched a descending passage seemingly chiselled from the solid rock, and conducting a current of air.

Lovecraft, RW The above sentence is translated as: Table The table below illustrates the recurring words, starting from those of highest frequency. It is translated in a variety of ways or, at times, omitted or changed in the course of the sentence. The issue concerning the title was discussed in the earlier part of this chapter. Lovecraft seems to pose a challenge for translators, since it is not accurately translated in the recent Polish editions of his prose.

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Six of his contemporary translators were analysed: Robert P. At least one story translated by each of the translators was subject to qualitative analysis, which exposed inconsistencies and inaccuracies in their work. No work was absolutely free from lexical mistakes which with varying degree of gravity. The ambiguities which may require a revision of the translation included additions and omissions of essential content, exaggeration in the use of adjectives which exceeded the original text, modifications in the sentence structure leading to a change of meaning or creation of tautological and contradictory constructions, shifting the mood of the story significantly by use of diminutives or inaccurate lexical items instead of the original vocabulary.

The most accurate translation, both in terms of quality and quantity, is the work by Ryszarda Grzybowska, in spite of minor lexical mistakes and the normalisation of dialectical speech, whose content is nonetheless translated correctly. Grzybowska's translation is closely followed by the works of Kopacz, who tends to shift the style of the author by additions which increase the coherence of the original sentences. The remaining translators are not quite accurate in their translations and many of the aforementioned ambiguities can be found in their works.

Examples of revised versions were proposed for certain fragments, and it may be necessary to retranslate some of H. Lovecraft's works into Polish again in order to present an accurate rendition of his style to the Polish readers.

Zysk i S-ka. Lovecraft, H. Style in fiction. London-New York: Punter, David. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Joshi, S. University of Texas Press. The Writings and Philosophy of H. Wildside Press. W rozdziale drugim przedstawiona zostaje sylwetka H. Lipski Suddenly there came another burst of that acute fear which had intermittently seized me ever since I first saw the terrible valley and the nameless city under a cold moon, and despite my exhaustion I found myself starting frantically to a sitting posture and gazing back along the black corridor toward the tunnels that rose to the outer world.

My sensations were much like those which had made me shun the nameless city at night, and were as inexplicable as they were poignant. In another moment, however, I received a still greater shock in the form of a definite sound—the first which had broken the utter silence of these tomb-like depths.

It was a deep, low moaning, as of a distant throng of condemned spirits, and came from the direction in which I was staring. Its volume rapidly grew, till soon it reverberated frightfully through the low passage, and at the same time I became conscious of an increasing draught of cold air, likewise flowing from the tunnels and the city above. The touch of this air seemed to restore my balance, for I instantly recalled the sudden gusts which had risen around the mouth of the abyss each sunset and sunrise, one of which had indeed served to reveal the hidden tunnels to me.

I looked at my watch and saw that sunrise was near, so braced myself to resist the gale which was sweeping down to its cavern home as it had swept forth at evening. My fear again waned low, since a natural phenomenon tends to dispel broodings over the unknown.

More and more madly poured the shrieking, moaning night-wind into that gulf of the inner earth. Such fury I had not expected, and as I grew aware of an actual slipping of my form toward the abyss I was beset by a thousand new terrors of apprehension and imagination. The malignancy of the blast awakened incredible fancies; once more I compared myself shudderingly to the only other human image in that frightful corridor, the man who was torn to pieces by the nameless race, for in the fiendish clawing of the swirling currents there seemed to abide a vindictive rage all the stronger because it was largely impotent.

I think I screamed frantically near the last—I was almost mad—but if I did so my cries were lost in the hell-born babel of the howling wind-wraiths. Finally reason must have wholly snapped, for I fell to babbling over and over that unexplainable couplet of the mad Arab Alhazred, who dreamed of the nameless city: Monstrous, unnatural, colossal, was the thing—too far beyond all the ideas of man to be believed except in the silent damnable small hours when one cannot sleep.

I have said that the fury of the rushing blast was infernal—cacodaemoniacal— and that its voices were hideous with the pent-up viciousness of desolate eternities. Presently those voices, while still chaotic before me, seemed to my beating brain to take articulate form behind me; and down there in the grave of unnumbered aeon-dead antiquities, leagues below the dawn-lit world of men, I heard the ghastly cursing and snarling of strange-tongued fiends.

Turning, I saw outlined against the luminous aether of the abyss what could not be seen against the dusk of the corridor—a nightmare horde of rushing devils; hate-distorted, grotesquely panoplied, half-transparent; devils of a race no man might mistake—the crawling reptiles of the nameless city.

And as I walked by the shallow crystal stream I saw unwonted ripples tipped with yellow light, as if those placid waters were drawn on in resistless currents to strange oceans that are not in the world. Silent and sparkling, bright and baleful, those moon-cursed waters hurried I knew not whither; whilst from the embowered banks white lotos blossoms fluttered one by one in the opiate night-wind and dropped despairingly into the stream, swirling away horribly under the arched, carven bridge, and staring back with the sinister resignation of calm, dead faces.

And as I ran along the shore, crushing sleeping flowers with heedless feet and maddened ever by the fear of unknown things and the lure of the dead faces, I saw that the garden had no end under that moon; for where by day the walls were, there stretched now only new vistas of trees and paths, flowers and shrubs, stone idols and pagodas, and bendings of the yellow-litten stream past grassy banks and under grotesque bridges of marble.

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